The cultivation methods depend upon the characteristics of the physical environment, technological know-how and socio-cultural practices.

Farming varies from subsistence to commercial type. In different parts of India, the following farming systems are practised.

Primitive Subsistence Farming

It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture. Farmers clear a patch of land and produce cereals and other food crops. When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation. It is known by different names in different parts of the country. It is known as jhumming in north-eastern states.

·        Land productivity is low in this type of agriculture.

·        This type of farming depends on monsoon.

·        This farming is practised in a few parts of India.

Intensive Subsistence Farming

·        This type of farming is practised in areas of high population pressure on land.

·        It is labour-intensive farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for higher production.

Commercial Farming

·        This type of farming uses higher doses of modern inputs such as high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides to obtain higher productivity.

Plantation is a type of commercial farming in which a single crop is grown on a large area. Plantations cover large tracts of land, using capital intensive inputs, with the help of migrant labourers. All the produce is used as a raw material in industries.

Eg: Tea, Coffee, Rubber, Sugarcane, Banana.