The cultivation methods depend upon the characteristics of the physical environment, technological know-how and socio-cultural practices.
Farming varies from subsistence to commercial type. In different parts of India, the following farming systems are practised.
Primitive Subsistence Farming
It is a ‘slash and burn’ agriculture. Farmers clear a patch of land and produce cereals and other food crops. When the soil fertility decreases, the farmers shift and clear a fresh patch of land for cultivation. It is known by different names in different parts of the country. It is known as jhumming in north-eastern states.
Land productivity is low in this type of
· This type of farming depends on monsoon.
· This farming is practised in a few parts of India.
Intensive Subsistence Farming
This type of farming is practised in areas of
high population pressure on land.
· It is labour-intensive farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for higher production.
This type of farming uses higher doses of
modern inputs such as high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilisers,
insecticides and pesticides to obtain higher productivity.
Plantation is a type of commercial farming in which a single crop is grown on a large area. Plantations cover large tracts of land, using capital intensive inputs, with the help of migrant labourers. All the produce is used as a raw material in industries.
Eg: Tea, Coffee, Rubber, Sugarcane, Banana.